Underground Resources In Turkey

Metallic Ores, Energy Raw Materials (coal, bituminous shale, petroleum), and Industrial Raw Materials in the showcase of  the underground resources of Turkey are located on the 2nd floor of the museum.

Metallic Ores

Iron (magnetite, hematite, goethite etc.), chromium (chromite), aluminum (diaspore etc.), copper (chalcosine, bornite, chalcopyrite, malachite-azurite), lead (galena), zinc (vurtzite, sphalerite etc.), nickel (nickeline etc.), antimony (antimonite / stibnite), gold and many other metallic mineral samples are exhibited in the metallic ores section.

Energy Raw Materials

The energy raw materials section is composed of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, bituminous shale, asphaltite (of vegetable and animal origin). But recently, geothermal energy sources and radioactive minerals such as uranium and thorium which are used as the raw materials for the nuclear fuel, can also be regarded as energy raw materials.


Coal is a sedimentary rock which occurs from plant origin materials and inorganic components. It occurs by the alteration which is the result of chemical and physical effects  of sedimentation of plant and tree residues in the swamps over millions  years. Coalification is the alteration process of plants. It is succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous coal, anthracite and graphite.

The observed following stages of coalification depend on ideal physical and chemical changes.

In the direction of arrow, the intensity of metamorphism (pressure + temperature effect) increases, the percentage of carbon and the amount of calories increase, so the amount water and volatile substances decrease.

Typer of coal

Peat: This type of coal is found mostly in marshes, swamps  and fens. The amount of water is high in this type of coal. Carbon percentage does not exceed 60%. Peat is young coal and it has not completed the coalification phase yet. It gives off about 3000 calories or below when burned.

Lignite: This type of coal has not completed its formation yet. Carbon percentage is between 70-80%. It gives off between 3000 and 6000 calories when burned.

Hard Coal: It is a high calorific coal. It is mined in Zonguldak region in our country. Hard Coal is a type of coal that exists between anthracite and lignite in terms of stages of coalification. It is also known as pit coal. The percentage of carbon is between 75-90%. It gives heat between 6000-9000 calories when burned.

Anthracite: Anthracite is the most valuable coal type.It consists of 95% carbon. It is the hardest type of coal and it gives more heat than the others when burned.

Graphite: Graphite is found as native carbon in nature. The principal difference of graphite from diamond is it’s amorphous structure. Graphite is used in the production of coals for arc lamps and lubricants. If it is mixed with clay, it can be used to make pencil leads.

Industrial Raw Materials

Industrial raw materials are commonly found in nature. Minerals other than metals, are examined within the context of industrial raw materials. They are used in many industries such as ceramic, glass, building-paint industry, chemistry etc. Industrial raw materials are used more easily than metallic ores. In the industrial raw materials section of the museum, non-metallic mines such as boron minerals, marble, feldspar, clay, kaolinite, sepiolite, salt and celestine are exhibited.