Systematic Mineralogy

Systematic mineralogy is a branch of science which identifies the crystallographic and physical properties of minerals, their chemical compositions, their structures, and examines their formations and possibilities of usage. Minerals can be classified in various methods. The most widely used method is the chemical-based classification, and it is as follows, in general.

Native Elements

These are the minerals which are composed of single element in nature.  Examples of Gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), sulphur (S), diamond (C), graphite (C) are exhibited in showcases.


Sulphides is an important class of minerals in which most of the ore minerals are found. Important sulphide minerals such as Galenite (PbS), Sphalerite (ZnS), Pyrite (FeS), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Cinnabar (HgS), Realgar (AsS), Orpiment (As2S3) are exhibited.


Earth's crust is composed of approximately 47% Oxygen. Oxide minerals are natural compounds formed by the combination of oxygen with one or more metals. Approximately 40 elements combine with oxygen to form simple compounds. Hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), ilmenite (FeTiO3), corundum (Al2O3), cuprite (Cu2O), rutile (TiO2), chromite (FeCr2O4) are important oxide minerals.


Mainly halogen minerals exist of halogen ions such as chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), fluorine (F) and iodine (I). Fluorite (CaF2), halite (rock salt) (NaCl), sylvine (KCl) are important halogen minerals.


It is common in the earth. In this group few metal elements compose with carbonate (CO3)-2. These minerals are readily soluble in acids and they give off carbon dioxide (CO2) gas.
Calcite (CaCO3), Magnesite (MgCO3), Rhodochrosite (MnCO3), Smithsonite (ZnCO3), Malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2), Azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2), Trona (Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O) are exhibited.


Boron doesn’t occur freely in nature. Boron is found as boron salts by combining with oxygen or silicates. It is one of the important industrial raw materials of our country. Two-thirds of the world's total boron reserves are in Turkey. Borax, colemanite, ulexite, kernite are important boron minerals.


Anhydrite (CaSO4), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), barite (BaSO4), alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), celestine (SrSO4) are important sulfate minerals.

Wolframates, Chromates and Molybdates

Wolframate (WO4)-2anion group which characterizes  wolframates , occur as stable minerals only when they combine with iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and calcium (Ca).

Powellite (CaMoO4), scheelite (CaWO4) are exhibited in this section.

Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates

Eritrite (CO3(AsO4)2.8H2O), Autunite (Ca[(UO2)(PO4)]2·11H2O), Torbernite Cu[UO2|PO4]2·12H2O, Vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2.8H2O), Variskite (AlPO4 .2H2O), Vanadinite (Pb5[Cl|(VO4)3]) are most important minerals in this group.


The silicate mineral class is considered to be the most important of all the mineral classes. About 25% of the known minerals and nearly 40% of the common ones are silicates. Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of the Earth's crust. The most commonly found silicate minerals are quartz and feldspar minerals.

  • Tectosilicates: Quartz (SiO2), Albite (NaAlSi3O8), Leucite (K (AlSi2O4)), Agate (SiO2)
  • Phillosilicates: Muscovite, Biotite, Flogopite, Vermiculite, Illite etc.
  • Inosilicates: Amphibole (Actinolite, tremolite, glaucophane, hornblende), pyroxene (Diopsite, Ojite), Pyroxenoid and so on.
  • Cyclosilicates: Tourmaline
  • Sorosilicates: Beryl