The first floor of our museum is dedicated to the unit of Paleontology. In this section, various groups of fossils compiled from different regions of our Country and presented from different parts of the world are exhibited.
The petrified remains of animals and plants that lived in the past are called Fossil. The important fossil groups help to investigate the geological development and to determine the formation of the Earth's crust. During the geological time the covered areas of land and sea, the distribution and distinguishable features of them; climatic conditions; environments of sedimentation and sedimentary ore deposits which were developed depending on the environments, reserves of the important energy resources such as oil and coal are searched with the help of Paleontology. There are valuable samples of Vertebrate, Invertebrate and Trace Fossils on the Paleontology section.

Elephas maximus asurus (MaraşElephant)


Percrocuta (Dinocrocuta) sp.

At the Vertebrate Section, besides fossils belonging to the mammalian groups, fishes, reptiles and birds are also exhibited. Large numbers of fossils belong to the mammals such as rhinoceroses, giraffes, carnivores and proboscides are from the different regions of our country.

Mesosaurus brasiliensis

Also, there are fossil specimens in this section that proved how the continents came to their present positions and the plate movements. Mesosaurus brasiliensis was an aquatic reptile that lived in the South America in the Early Permian (299-270 million years ago).
Mesosaurus is one of the most important proofs of the Theory of Continental Drift. Fossils belonging to this genus were found in the southern part of Africa and South America, which are far apart from each other today. The fact that Mesosaurus was a creature which lived on the shore is a proof showing that these two continents were together in the past. If the Mesosaurus had crossed the Atlantic and made a long journey, the remains would have spread to larger areas.

It was taken from 2007, Thomsan Higher Education.

Within the scope of museum projects, excavation studies of Giant Rhinoceroses are being carried out in Çankırı Çorum basin. Lower jaw, teeth and surrounding bones that belong to Giant Rhinoceros (Baluchitherium sp.) are exhibited in the Vertebrate section.


It was taken from SameerPrehistorica.deviantart.

Paraceratherium (Baluchitherium) sp.mandibula

At the Invertebrate Section fossils of invertebrate animals from single celled ones (Eozoa) to multicellular (Metazoa) organisms are exhibited in a systematic sequence. In every epoch, certain characteristic fossil groups are widespread. So this is very important for the aging of the layers in which they exist.



Trilobites are an important group of fossils that had spread in all seas, from the Cambrian to the Permian. There are more than 10,000 Trilobite types. They would walk or swim on the seabed.



Numerous Ammonites are quite large and range from 30 cm to 2 m, lived in all seas at Mesozoic times. It is the ancestor of Octopus, Supya and Inkbags. Ammonites are exhibited in the Paleontology Section and are generally collected around Ankara. These are the most important evidences showing that Ankara was covered with sea about 185 million years ago.


Bivalves are two-valved molluscs. They live in seas and fresh waters. The particles in the water are filtered by siphons. They move on the seafloor with their feet, by burying or fixing themselves to the ground. The Pectens swim by opening and closing their valves in the sea.




Strombus | Terebralia

Both the fossils and the current species of this class, which are highly mobile, showed more diversity than bivalves. They live in the seas, lakes and lands. They develop in the warm marine conditions.




The Crinoid and Echinoid classes are known as the Dermatophytes and all live in the seas. Sea urchins, sea lilies, starfishes are in this group. The sea urchins have hard shells made up of laminated plates. Thorns have developed on these plates. They first appeared in the Paleocene era and still live today.

Encrinus liliiformis

The sea lilies are connected to the ground with a long stem.They live in deeper waters. They spread their nutrients and collect them with their thinner branch-like arms.
Beside the exhibition samples, our museum has a large archive of more than 100,000 fossils from various classes. In this archive, there are Vertebrate, Invertebrate and Plant Fossils obtained from the field studies carried out during the projects of the General Directorate of MTA.



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